PCIe Passthrough on Proxmox v6.3-3
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This post is part of a homelab series I'll be rolling out through the next few weeks. I have two custom servers I've built for my homelab, one of which has a Nvidia P2000 that I would like to use inside a Ubuntu VM.

In order to use a PCIe device inside your VM, you need do a little magic inside your Proxmox host.

Host Config (Proxmox)

  1. To start, we need to enable IOMMU on the Promxox host. With your editor of choice, open up /etc/default/grub, and comment out the #GRUB_CMDLINE_LINUX_DEFAULT="quiet", replace with GRUB_CMDLINE_LINUX_DEFAULT="quiet amd_iommu=on". If you are using an intel cpu, then use intel_iommu=on instead.
# /etc/default/grub
GRUB_DISTRIBUTOR="Proxmox Virtual Environment"
GRUB_CMDLINE_LINUX_DEFAULT="quiet amd_iommu=on pcie_acs_override=downstream,multifunction video=efifb:eek:ff"
GRUB_CMDLINE_LINUX="root=ZFS=rpool/ROOT/pve-1 boot=zfs"

Save the file and then run update-grub

Verify that IOMMU is enabled, reboot then run: dmesg | grep -e DMAR -e IOMMU

  1. Add the following lines to /etc/modules, save then exit.
# /etc/modules


  1. This next step assumes you have created a VM inside proxmox already. If you haven't done so yet, go ahead. Default bios is fine for linux, if you are setting up a windows virtual machine, set the bios to ovmf. Once finished, shut down the vm and edit it's conf file. I'm adding q35 as the machine type, and some cpu configurations.
# /etc/pve/qemu-server/100.conf
# Replace 100.conf with the ID of your VM.

cpu: host,hidden=1,flags=+pcid
machine: q35
  1. This next step is little bit of a pain, but basically it allows us to properly identify our GPU so that we can add it in the VM GUI config area.

lspci -v to print out a list of hardware. It will be lengthy, but identify your GPU. Somewhere in that list, you should find your GPU. Here's what my output looks like:

2d:00.0 VGA compatible controller: NVIDIA Corporation GP106GL (rev a1) (prog-if 00 [VGA controller])
        Subsystem: NVIDIA Corporation GP106GL [Quadro P2000]
        Flags: bus master, fast devsel, latency 0, IRQ 148
        Memory at fb000000 (32-bit, non-prefetchable) [size=16M]
        Memory at d0000000 (64-bit, prefetchable) [size=256M]
        Memory at e0000000 (64-bit, prefetchable) [size=32M]
        I/O ports at f000 [size=128]
        Expansion ROM at 000c0000 [disabled] [size=128K]
        Capabilities: [60] Power Management version 3
        Capabilities: [68] MSI: Enable- Count=1/1 Maskable- 64bit+
        Capabilities: [78] Express Legacy Endpoint, MSI 00
        Capabilities: [100] Virtual Channel
        Capabilities: [128] Power Budgeting <?>
        Capabilities: [420] Advanced Error Reporting
        Capabilities: [600] Vendor Specific Information: ID=0001 Rev=1 Len=024 <?>
        Capabilities: [900] #19
        Kernel driver in use: vfio-pci
        Kernel modules: nvidiafb, nouveau

Now that we've found it, lets get more info on it by running lspci -n -s 2d:00

2d:00.0 0300: 10de:1c30 (rev a1)
2d:00.1 0403: 10de:10f1 (rev a1)

Great, so now we just want to add the pci ID's to the vfio.conf file. The ID's in my case are 10de:1c30 and 10de:10f1.

Now let's just add it to the vfio.conf file: echo "options vfio-pci ids=10de:1c30,10de:10f1" > /etc/modprobe.d/vfio.conf

  1. We need to add some lines to the proxmox's blacklist conf file.
# /etc/modprobe.d/pve-blacklist.conf

blacklist nvidiafb
blacklist nvidia
blacklist radeon
blacklist nouveau

Save then exit. This would also be a good time to restart your proxmox host.

  1. Now we can finally add our GPU to our virtual machine. Under the hardware settings area, add a new PCI device: proxmox-1

A list will appear, find and select your GPU from the list: proxmox-2

Be sure to enable All Functions, Rom-Bar, and PCI-Express: proxmox-3 If you Also turn on Primary GPU, then you won't be able to console into the virtual machine through the proxmox host (you can still ssh into it!). Click 'ok' and then start up your VM!

The last step is to ssh into the virtual machine, and check that our GPU is being recognized.

Run the following command. If all things went well, then you should be able to identify your GPU in the list:

lshw -c video

       description: VGA compatible controller
       product: GP106GL [Quadro P2000]
       vendor: NVIDIA Corporation
       physical id: 0
       bus info: [email protected]:01:00.0
       version: a1
       width: 64 bits
       clock: 33MHz
       capabilities: pm msi pciexpress vga_controller bus_master cap_list rom

If you see your graphics card in the output, congrats! The next step would be installing drivers, but I'll save that for another post.